Education and Reuse / Docomomo Journal 61 (2019/3)

On the cover: Lina Bo Bardi, SESC Pompeia leisure center, internal view of the warehouse, São Paulo, Brasil, 1982. © Instituto Bardi/Casa de Vidro, unknown photographer.

Download Journal excerpt

Editorial
100 years back, 100 years forward

BY ANA TOSTÕES

The theme of this docomomo Journal is that reuse is a key for both a sustainable future and for education. This issue also celebrates the Bauhaus
centenary (1919-2019) and tackles the physical and ideological legacy
of the German school while confronting it with the challenges we face
today and the role that education might play in this fight to value
Modern Movement architecture and to pursuit its longevity.

The Bauhaus had a pioneering influence on design worldwide which
still endures today; through education, experimentation and
materialization, a revolution took place in architecture, urbanism and
design for mass production.

In 1918, during the immediate post-war period, Walter Gropius (1883-1969) achieved a fusion between the Kunstgewerbeschule and the Hochschule fur Bildende Kunst
in Weimar, with the creation of an interdisciplinary school of design
and crafts. In April 1919, he was elected director of the school which
was by then called the Staatliches Bauhaus. He also published the Bauhaus Manifesto,
which remains as a pioneering moment in history, with irreversible
consequences at a global scale. The Bauhaus as a school, as a method of
experimentation, education, and research, embodies the idea of science
applied in service of the society. At the Bauhaus, utopia was combined
with pragmatism, agitation and propaganda with public service, poetry
with utility, Neue Sachlichkeit with creation and freedom. Its
premises continue to be relevant today with the great issues of
sustainability and democracy needing to be addressed through art and
technology.

Aware of these concerns, the 14th International docomomo
Conference, held in Lisbon in 2016 under the theme “Adaptive Reuse”,
summoned up the pertinence and urgency of education for reuse as the key
for a sustainable future, recalling the Seoul-Eindhoven statement
updating the docomomo constitution with the concept of reuse. Within this scope of education, an Agreement of Collaboration was signed between docomomo
International and the J. Paul Getty Trust (operating as the Getty
Conservation Institute) with the aim of developing a report on the
worldwide offer of educational programs and training courses on modern
heritage conservation.

Additionally, docomomo joined several universities
across Europe in the research project RMB – Reuse of Modernist Buildings
– coordinated by Michel Melenhorst (Technische Hochschule
Ostwestfalen-Lippe OWL University of Applied Sciences and Arts), who acts as well as guest-editor of this docomomo issue. The RMB consortium looked into the current paradigm of architectural education focused on 20th
century architecture in order to develop a Master’s program that could
bridge and enrich the growing field of rehabilitation and reuse.

I wish to thank Michel Melenhorst who accepted the challenge to work
as guest editor of this “Education and Reuse” issue. His commitment and
perseverance were shared by the authors’ who collaborated generously
with their knowledge and dedicated work. A large variety of approaches
and points of view are presented, showing the cross-fertilization of
subjects that education and reuse of Modern Movement architecture
raises, worldwide: from Brazil to the Netherlands, Israel to Germany,
USA to Switzerland.

Barry Bergdoll’s essay, which illustrates the backstage and preparation of the 1938 exhibition Bauhaus 1919-1928
at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, allows us to analyze and
understand how the main figures of the Bauhaus wished to present the
school and its vision to the world. Jasmine Benyamin analyzes the
educational program Gropius envisioned and developed at the Bauhaus, and
the principles it ended up passing on to its students and followers.
The impact of his ideas on theory and education, aiming for the unity of
all arts, would take over the historiography of architecture, design
and urbanism and still lingers to this day. Marina Epstein and Talia
Abramovich elaborate on the demystification of Tel’Aviv as the mythical
White City, presenting the real effect the Bauhaus had on the city. The
Documentation Issue chapter presents an inspiring essay by Dietrich
Neumann who generously shares with docomomo his recent research on the beginnings of the Bauhaus.

Other contributions document reuse projects whose main goal was to
create new lives in architectural structures or public spaces, such as
Renato Anelli’s essay on SESC Pompeia (Lina Bo Bardi, 1961) in São Paulo
or Vincent Ligtelijn’s essay on the Amsterdam Playgrounds (Van Eyck,
1940’s), contributing to the debate on sustainability. In a thoughtful
pause, Robert Huber’s essay allows one to reflect on architecture
production talking about the different forces that could be involved in a
process of preservation and how to find the balance between them while
presenting the bauhaus reuse project. The topic of education
for the reuse of buildings is deepened through the best practices
reports on education conducted in two leading European architectural
schools: EPFL by Franz Graf and TUDelft by Nicholas Clarke, Hielkje
Zijlstra and Wessel De Jonge.

Finally, docomomo Journal is
grateful to David Chipperfield and Wiel Arets for having provided the
basis for two fruitful discussions on modernity and modern heritage,
economy and sustainability, addressing the social mission and the
responsibility of architects towards the future.

Editorial

100 years back, 100 years forward
BY ANA TOSTÕES

Introduction

Reuse of Modernist Buildings
BY MICHEL MELENHORST 
Essays

Memento mori or eternal Modernism? The Bauhaus at MoMA, 1938
BY BARRY BERGDOLL

Walter Gropius and Operative History: an Architectural Palimpsest 
BY JASMINE BENYAMIN

From “White City” to “Bauhaus City” – Tel Aviv’s urban and architectural resilience
BY MARINA EPSTEIN-PLIOUCHTCH AND TALIA ABRAMOVICH

Aldo van Eyck and the Amsterdam playgrounds 
BY VINCENT LIGTELIJN

Bauhaus and Lina Bo Bardi: from the modern factory to the Pompeia leisure center
BY RENATO ANELLI

Modern Reuse
BY ROBERT K. HUBER

Reports on Education

Teaching the Laboratory of the Techniques and Preservation of
Modern Architecture (TSAM) at the École Polytechnique Fédéral de
Lausanne

BY FRANZ GRAF

Education for Adaptive reuse – the TU Delft Heritage and Architecture Experience
BY NICHOLAS CLARKE, HIELKJE ZIJLSTRA, AND WESSEL DE JONGE

Interviews

David Chipperfield interviewed by Ana Tostões and Michel Melenhorst

Wiel Arets interviewed by Ana Tostões and Michel Melenhorst

Documentation Issues

How did the Bauhaus get its name?
BY DIETRICH NEUMANN

News

Book Reviews

Appendix

Download Journal excerpt

error: Content is Protected